Admission Open

Operating Systems Course in Mianwali

Operating Systems Course Outline
I. Introduction to Operating Systems
Overview of Operating Systems
Definition and purpose
Types of operating systems (batch, time-sharing, distributed, real-time, embedded)
History of Operating Systems
Evolution and key milestones
Operating System Structure
Monolithic, layered, microkernels, modular
II. Operating System Architecture
System Components
Kernel, shell, and system utilities
User Interface
Command-line interface (CLI)
Graphical user interface (GUI)
System Calls and APIs
Definition and role
Common system calls
III. Process Management
Processes and Threads
Definition and differences
Process control block (PCB)
Thread management and models
Process Scheduling
Scheduling criteria
Scheduling algorithms (FCFS, SJF, RR, priority, multilevel queue)
Process Synchronization
Critical section problem
Synchronization mechanisms (mutexes, semaphores, monitors)
Inter-process Communication (IPC)
Message passing
Shared memory
IV. Memory Management
Memory Hierarchy
Registers, cache, main memory, secondary storage
Memory Allocation
Contiguous allocation
Paging and segmentation
Virtual Memory
Concept and benefits
Page replacement algorithms (FIFO, LRU, optimal)
Thrashing and techniques to mitigate it
V. Storage Management
File Systems
File concept and attributes
Directory structure
File system implementation (allocation methods, free space management)
Disk Management
Disk structure and scheduling (FCFS, SSTF, SCAN, C-SCAN)
RAID levels and benefits
I/O Systems
I/O hardware and software
Interrupt handling
Direct Memory Access (DMA)
VI. Security and Protection
Security Concepts
Threats and vulnerabilities
Security policies and mechanisms
Authentication and Authorization
Methods of authentication (passwords, biometrics)
Access control models (DAC, MAC, RBAC)
Encryption and Cryptography
Symmetric and asymmetric encryption
Digital signatures and certificates
Protection Mechanisms
Memory protection (base and limit registers, segmentation)
Access control lists (ACLs) and capabilities
VII. Distributed Systems
Introduction to Distributed Systems
Definition and characteristics
Examples of distributed systems
Distributed Operating System Concepts
Transparency, scalability, fault tolerance
Distributed file systems
Synchronization in Distributed Systems
Clock synchronization (NTP, Lamport’s logical clocks)
Distributed mutual exclusion
Election algorithms
VIII. Real-Time and Embedded Systems
Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS)
Characteristics and applications
Scheduling in RTOS (rate-monotonic, earliest deadline first)
Embedded Systems
Definition and examples
Design considerations and constraints
IX. Advanced Topics
Virtualization and Cloud Computing
Concept and types of virtualization
Hypervisors and virtual machines
Cloud computing models (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS)
Multiprocessor and Multicore Systems
Symmetric and asymmetric multiprocessing
Multicore processors and parallelism
Mobile Operating Systems
Characteristics and examples (iOS, Android)
Design challenges and considerations
X. Practical Applications and Projects
Hands-On Labs and Simulations
Setting up and configuring an OS
Writing and managing system calls
Capstone Project
Designing and implementing a simple operating system
Project presentation and evaluation
XI. Best Practices and Future Directions
Design and Implementation Best Practices
Modularity and maintainability
Performance optimization
Future Trends in Operating Systems
Anticipated advancements
Emerging challenges and opportunities
XII. Further Learning Resources
Books and Online Courses
Recommended readings
Online platforms for further learning
Practice Websites and Coding Challenges
Simulation tools and virtual labs
Community Support and Forums
Stack Overflow, GitHub communities, Reddit OS groups
XIII. Conclusion
Summary of Key Concepts
Encouragement for Continued Learning
Final Thoughts on the Importance of Operating Systems

Admission Open for this course
Contact Number: 03307615544

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